ABSCHLUSSERKLAERGUNG AUF DEM WELTWIRTSCHAFTSGIPFEL VOM 10.07.1992
Shaping the New Partnership
1. We, the leaders of our seven countries and the representatives of the
European Community, support the democratic revolution which has ended
the East-West confrontation and has fundamentally changed the global
political landscape. Since we last met, further dramatic changes have
accelerated progress towards democracy, market-based economies, and
social justice. The way has been opened for a new partnership of
shared responsibilities, not only in Europe which at long last is
reunited, but also in the Asia-Pacific region and elsewhere in the
world. We are entering an era where confrontation has given way to
2. This new partnership will take many forms. The former adversaries of
East and West will cooperate extensively on economic, political and
security issues. We look for the worldwide development of similar
patterns of cooperation within regions and between regions. As
developed countries, we offer continuing support and assistance to
developing countries. We believe that transnational problems, in
particular the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, can be
solved only through international cooperation. Partnership will
flourish as common values take root, based on the principles of
political and economic freedeom, human rights, democracy, justice and
the rule of law. We believe that political and economic freedom are
closely linked and mutually reinforcing and that, to that end, good
governance and respect for human rights are important criteria in
providing economic assistance.
3. The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the new states of the
former Soviet Union can now seize unprecedented opportunities - but
they also face enormous challenges. We will support them as they move
toward the achievement of democratic societies and political and
economic freedom. We encourage them to create a stable constitutional
and legal framework for their reform programmes and commend their
efforts to cut substantially the proportion of public spending devoted
to the military sector.
4. The Treaty signed at Maastricht by the twelve members of the European
Community is a historic step on the way to European Union. Its
implementation will enhance political stability on the European
Continent and open up new opportunities for cooperation.
5. Since we last met, the creation of the North Atlantic Cooperation
Council has enhanced the cooperative relationship on the North
Atlantic Alliance with countries in Central and Eastern Europe and
with the states of the former Soviet Union. WEU, too, is
strengthening its relationship with countries in Central and Eastern
6. The need for international cooperation has also been underlined by new
instabilities and conflicts due to resurgent nationalism and
interethnic tensions. Communal and territorial disputes are being
settled by force, causing death, destruction, and widespread
dislocation of innocent people throughout the former Yugoslavia, in
parts of the former Soviet Union, and elsewhere in the world.
7. The full and immediate implementation of all CSCE commitments is
essential in building security and stability in Europe. All CSCE
states must solve their disputes by peaceful means and guarantee the
equal treatment of all minorities. We call upon the Helsinki CSCE
Summit to take decisions to strengthen the CSCE's capabilities for
conflict prevention, crisis management and peaceful resolution of
disputes. We also look forward to the establishment of a security
cooperation forum at the Helsinki Summit. In this regard, we welcome
the recent decisions by NATO foreign ministers and WEU ministers on
support for peacekeeping operations carried out under the
responsibility of the CSCE. We support the development of a regular
and productive dialogue between Japan and the CSCE on matters of
8. In the Asia-Pacific region, existing regional frameworks, such as the
ASEAN Post-Ministerial Conferences and the Asia-Pacific Economic
Cooperation, have an important part to play in promoting peace and
stability. We are seriously concerned at the present situation in
Cambodia and urge all parties concerned to support UNTAC and uphold
the still fragile peace process to bring it to a successful
9. We welcome Russia's commitment to a foreign policy based on the
principle of law and justice. We believe that this represents a basis
for full normalization of the Russian-Japanese relationship through
resolving the territorial issue.
1. The end of the East-West confrontation provides a historic
opportunity, but also underlines the urgent need to curb the
proliferation of nuclear weapons, other weapons of mass destruction
and missiles capable of delivering them. We are firmly of the view
that the indefinite extension of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
at the 1995 Review Conference will be a key step in this process and
that the process of nuclear arms control and reduction must be
continued. The motivation for nuclear proliferation will also be
reduced through effort to advance regional security.
2. We urge countries not yet parties to the NPT to join. We look forward
to the early adherence to the NPT as non-nuclear weapons states of
Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus as well as the other non-Russian
states of the former Soviet Union. We shal continue through bilateral
contacts and the International Science and Technology Centres in
Moscow and Kiev our efforts to inhibit the spread of expertise on
weapons of mass destruction. We attach the highest importance to the
establishment in the former Soviet Union of effective export controls
on nuclear materials, weapons and other sensitive goods and
technologies and will offer training and practical assistance to help
3. The world needs the most effective possible action to safeguard
nuclear materials and to detect and prevent the transfer or the
illicit or clandestine production of nuclear weapons. Nuclear
cooperation will in future be conditional on adherence to the NPT or
an existing equivalent internationally binding agreement as well as on
the adoption of full-scope International Atomic Energy Agency
safeguards, as recently laid down by the Nuclear Suppliers Group. The
IAEA must receive the resources necessary to strengthen the existing
safeguards regime and to conduct effective special inspections of
undeclared but suspect nuclear sites as one means of achieving this.
We will support reference by the IAEA of unresolved cases of
proliferation to the UN Security Council.
4. We reaffirm our willingness to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear
technology with all other states, in accordance with our non-
5. We will continue to encourage all countries to adopt the guidelines of
the Missile Technology Control Regime and welcome the recent decision
by the plenary session of the MTCR to extend the scope of the
guidelines to cover missiles capable of delivering all kinds of
weapons of mass destruction. Each of us will continue our efforts to
improve transparency and consultation in the transfer of conventional
weapons and to encourage restraint in such transfers. Provision of
full and timely information to the UN Arms Register is an important
element in these efforts.
6. We will continue to intensify our cooperation in the area of export
controls of sensitive items in the appropriate fora to reduce threats
to international security. A major element of this effort is the
informal exchange of information to improve and harmonize these export
7. Arms control agreements which have been signed by the former Soviet
Union, in particular the START and CFE treaties, must enter into
force. The full implementation of the CFE Treaty will create the
foundation for the new cooperative security framework in Europe. We
welcome the far-reaching follow-on agreement on strategic nuclear
weapons concluded by the US and Russia in June as another major step
towards a safer, more stable world. Further measures, in particular
the unilaterally announced elimination of ground-launched short-range
nuclear weapons by the United States and the former Soviet Union,
should be carried out as soon as possible. We support Russia in its
efforts to secure the peaceful use of nuclear materials resulting from
the elimination of nuclear weapons. The Geneva negotiations for a
convention on the effective global ban on chemical weapons must be
successfully concluded this year. We call on all nations to become
original signatories to this convention.
1. The new challenges underline the need for strengthening the UN, taking
account of changing international circumstances. Since our last
meeting in London the tasks and responsibilities of the UN have
further increased in a dramatic way, especially in the area of crisis
prevention, conflict management and the protection of minorities. The
UN has played a central role in the international response to
developments in the Gulf, in Cambodia, in the former Yugoslavia and in
other regions of the world.
2. We support the UN's role in maintaining international peace and
security. The accession to the UN of new states has reinforced the
importance of this role. We call upon all these new member states to
abide by their solemn undertakings to uphold the purposes and
principles of the UN Charter.
3. We reaffirm our commitment to cooperate on existing refugee problems.
We deplore action by any state or group against minorities that
creates new flows of refugees and displaced persons.
4. We support moves undertaken so far by the Secretary-General to reform
the Organization, including the appointment of a high-ranking
emergency relief coordinator. The Secretary General's report "An
Agenda for Peace" is a valuable contribution to the work of the United
Nations on preventive diplomacy, peace-making and peace-keeping. We
assure him of our readiness to provide the political support and
resources needed to maintain interantional peace and security.
5. We strongly support improved cooperation between the UN and regional
arrangements and agencies as envisaged in Chapter VIII of the UN
Charter, which have an increasing role in solving conflicts.
6. In closing this Declaration, we reaffirm that recognition of the
inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all
members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and
peace in the world. Human rights are not at the disposal of
individual states or their governements. They cannot be subordinate
to the rules of any political, ideological or religious system. The
protection and the promotion of human rights remain one of the
principal tasks of the community of nations.
WORKING TOGETHER FOR GROWTH AND A SAFER WORLD
1. We, the Heads of State and Government of seven major industrial
nations and the President of the Commission of the European Community,
have met in Munich for our eighteenth annual Summit.
2. The international community is at the threshold of a new era, freed
from the burden of the East-West conflict. Rarely have conditions been
so favourable for shaping a permanent peace, guaranteeing respect for
human rights, carrying through the principles of democracy, ensuring
free markets, overcoming poverty and safeguarding the environment.
3. We are resolved, by taking action in a spirit of partnership, to seize
the unique opportunities now available. While fundamental change
entails risk, we place our trust in the creativity, effort and
dedication of people as the true sources of economic and social
progress. The global dimension of the challenges and the mutual
dependencies call for world-wide cooperation. The close coordination
of our policies as part of this cooperation is now more important than
4. Strong world economic growth is the prerequisite for solving a variety
of challenges we face in the post-Cold War world. Increasingly, there
are signs of global economic recovery. But we will not take it for
granted and will act together to assure the recovery gathers strength
and growth picks up.
5. Too many poeple are out of work. The potential strength of people,
factories and resources is not being fully employed. We are
particularly concerned about the hardship unemployment creates.
6. Each of us faces somewhat different economic situations. But we all
would gain greatly from stronger, sustainable non-inflationary growth.
7. Higher growth will help other countries, too. Growth generates trade.
More trade will give a boost to developing nations and to the new
democracies seeking to transform command economies into productive
participants within the global marketplace. Their economic success is
in our comon interest.
8. A successful Uruguay Round will be a significant contribution to the
future of the world economy. An early conclusion of the negotiations
will reinforce our economies, promote the process of reform in Eastern
Europe and give new opportunities for the well-being of other nations,
including in particular the developing countries.
We regret the slow pace of the negotiations since we met in London
last year. But there has been progress in recent months. Therefore we
are convinced that a balanced agreement is within reach.
We welcome the reform of the European Community's Common Agricultural
Policy which has just been adopted and which should facilitate the
settlement of outstanding issues.
Progress has been made on the issue of internal support in a way which
is consistent with the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy, on
dealing with the volume of susbsidised exports and on avoinding future
disputes. These topics require further work. In addition, parties
still have concerns in the areas of market access and trade in cereal
substitues that they seek to address.
We reaffirm that negotiations should lead to a globally balanced
result. An accord must create more open markets for foods and services
and will require comparable efforts from all negotiating partners.
On this basis we expect that an aghreement can be reached before the
end of 1992.
9. We are committed, through coordinated and individual actions, to build
confidence for investors, savers and consumers; confidence that hard
work will lead to a better quality of life; confidence that
investments will be profitable; confidence that savings will be
rewarded and that price stability will not be put at risk.
10. We pledge to adopt policies aimed at creating jobs and growth. We
will seek to take the appropriate steps, recognising our individual
circumstances, to establish sound macroeconomic policies to spur
stronger sustainable growth. With this in mind we have agreed on the
following guidelines :
- to continue to pursue sound monetary and financial policies to
support the upturn without rekindling inflation;
- to integrate more closely our environmental and growth objectives,
by encouraging market incentives and technological innovation to
promote environmentally sound consumption and production.
- to create the scope for lower interest rates through the reduction
of excessive public deficits and the promotion of savings;
- to curb excessive public deficits above all by limiting public
spending. Taxpayers' money should be used more economically and more
As the risk of inflation recedes as a result of our policies, it will
be increasingly possible for interest rates to come down. This will
help promote new investment and therefore stronger growth and more
11. But good macroeconomic policies are not enough. All our economies are
burdened by structural rigidities that constrain our potential growth
rates. We need to encourage competition. We need to create a more
hospitable environment for private initiative. We need to cut back
excess regulation, which suppresses innovation, enterprise and
creativity. We will strengthen employment opportunities through better
training, education, and enhanced mobility. We will strengthen the
basis for long-term growth through improvements in infrastructure and
greater attention to research and development. We are urging these
kinds of reforms for new democracies in the transition to market
economies. We cannot demand less of ourselves.
12. The coordination of economic and financial policies is a central
element in our comon strategy for sustained, non-inflationary
growth. We request our Finance Ministers to strengthen their
cooperation on the basis of our agreed guidelines and to intensify
their work to reduce obstacles to growth and therefore foster
employment. We ask them to report to our meeting in Japan in 1993.
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)
13. The Earth Summit has been a landmark in heightening the
consciousness of the global environmental challenges, and in giving
new impetus to the process of creating a world-wide partnership on
development and the environment. Rapid and concrete action is
required to follow through on our commitments on climate change, to
protect forests and oceans, to preserve marine resources, and to
maintain biodiversity. We therefore urge all countries, developed
and developing to direct their policies and resources towards
sustainable development which safeguards the interests of both
present and future generations.
14. To carry forward the momentum of the Rio Conference, we urge other
countries to join us :
- in seeking to ratify the Climate Change Convention by the end of
- in drawing up and publishing national action plans, as foressen at
UNCED, by the end of 1993,
- in working to protect species and the habitats on which they depend,
- in giving additional financial and technical support to developing
countries for sustainable development through official development
assistance (ODA), in particular by replenishment of IDA, and for
actions of global benefit through the Global Environment Facility
(GEF) with a view to its being established as a permanent funding
- in establishing at the 1992 UN General Assembly the Sustainable
Development Commission which will have a vital role to play in
monitoring the implementation of Agenda 21,
- in establishing an international reveiw process for the forest
principles, in an early dialogue, on the basis of the implementation
of these principles, on possible appropriate internationally agreed
arrangements, and in increased international assistance,
- in further improving monitoring of the global environment, including
through better utilisation of data from satellite and other earth
- by ensuring the international conference on straddling fish stocks
and highly migratory fish stocks in the oceans is convened as soon
15. We welcome the economic and political progress which many developing
countries have made, particularly in East and South-East Asia, but
also in Latin America and in some part of Africa. However, many
countries throughout the world are still struggling against poverty.
Sub-Sahara Africa, above all, gives cause for concern.
16. We are committed to dialogue and partnership founded on shared
responsibility and a growing consensus on fundamental political and
economic principles. Global challenges such as population growth and
the environment can only be met through cooperative efforts by all
countries. Reforming the economic and social sector of the UN system
will be an important step to this end.
17. We welcome the growing acceptance of the principles of good
governance. Economic and social progress can only be assured if
countries mobilise their own potential, all segments of the
population are involved and human rights are respected. Regional
cooperation among developing countries enhances development and can
contribute to stability, peaceful relations and reduced arms
18. The industrial countries bear a special responsibility for a sound
global eocnomy. We shall pay regard to the effects of our policies
on teh developing countries. We will continue our best efforts to
increase the quantity and quality of official development assistance
in accordance with out commitments. We shall direct official
development assistance more towards the poorest countries. Poverty,
population policy, education, health, the role of women and the
well-being of children merit special attention. We shall support in
particular those countries that undertake credible efforts to help
themselves. The more prosperous developing countries are invited to
contribute to international assistance.
19. We underline the importance for developing countries of trade,
foreign direct investment and an active private sector. Poor
developing countries should be offered technical assistance to
establish a more diversified export base especially in manufactured
20. Negotiations on a substantial replenishment of IDA funds should be
concluded before the end of 1992. The IMF should continue to provide
concessional financing to support the reform programmes for the
poorest countries. We call for an early decision by the IMF on the
extension for one year of the Enhanced Structural Adjustmnet
Facility and for the full examination of options for the subsequent
period, including a renewal of the facility.
21. We are deeply concerned about the unprecedented drougth in southern
Africa. Two thirds of the Drought Appeal target has been met. But
much remains to be done. We call on all countries to assist.
22. We welcome the progress achieved by many developing countries in
overcoming the debt problems and regaining their creditworthiness.
Initiatives of previous Summits have contributed to this.
Nevertheless, many devleoping countries are still in a difficult
23. We confirm the validity of the international debt strategy. We
welcome the enhanced debt relief extended to the poorest countries
by the Paris Club. We note that the Paris Club has agreed to
consider the stock of debt approach, under certain conditions, after
a period of three or four years, for the poorest countries that are
prepared to adjust, and we encourage it to recognise the special
situation of some highly indebted lower-middle-income countries on a
case by case basis. We attach great importance to the enchanced use
of voluntary debt conversions, including debt conversions for
Central and Eastern Europe
24. We welcome the progress of the democracies in Central and Eastern
Europe including the Baltic States (CEECs) towards political and
eocnomic reform and integration into the world economy. The reform
must be pursued vigorously. Great efforts and even sacrifices are
still required from their people. They have our continuing support.
25. We welcome the substantial multilateral and bilateral assistance in
support of reform in the CEECs. Financing provided by the EBRD is
playing a useful role. Since 1989, total assistance and commitments,
in the form of grants, loans and credit guarantees by the Group of
24 and the international financial institutions, amounts to $ 52
billion. We call upon the Group of 24 to continue its coordination
activity and to adapt it to the requirements of each reforming
country. We reaffirm our readiness to make fair contributions.
26. We support the idea of working with Poland to reallocate, on the
basis of existing arrangements, funds from the currency
stabilisation fund, upon agreement on an IMF programme, towards new
uses in support of Poland's market reform effort, in particular by
strengthening the competitiveness of Poland's business enterprises.
27. The industrial countries have granted susbstantial trade concessions
to the CEECs in order to ensure that their reform efforts will
succeed. But all countries should open their markets further. The
agreements of the EC and EFTA countries aiming at the establishment
of free trade areas with these countries are a significant
contribution. We shall continue to offer the CEECs technical
assistance in enhancing their export capacity.
28. We urge all CEECs to develop their economic relations with each
other, with the new independent States of the former Soviet Union as
well as more widely on a market-oriented basis and consistent with
GATT principles. As a step in this direction we welcome the special
cooperation among the CSFR, Poland and Hungary, and hope that free
trade among them will soon be possible.
29. Investment from abroad should be welcomed. It is important for the
development of the full economic potential of the CEECs. We urge the
CEECs to focus their policies on the creation of attractive and
reliable investment conditions for private capital. We are providing
our bilateral credit insurance and guarantee instruments to promote
foreign investment when these conditions, including servicing of
debt, are met. We call upon enterprises in the industrial countries
to avail themselves of investment opportunities in the CEECs.
New independent States of the former Soviet Union
30. The far-reaching changes in the former Soviet Union offer an
historic opportunity to make the world a better place : more secure,
more democratic and more prosperous. Under President Yeltsin's
leadership the Russian government has embarked on a difficult reform
process. We look forward to our meeting with him to discuss our
cooperation in support of these reforms. We are prepared to work
with the leaders of all new States pursuing reforms. The success is
in the interest of the international community.
31. We are aware that the transition will involve painful adjustments.
We offer the new States our help for their self-help. Our
cooperation will be comprehensive and will be tailored to their
reform progress and internationally responsible behaviour, including
further reductions in military spending and fulfilment of
obligations already undertaken.
32. We encourage the new States to adopt sound economic policies, above
all by bringing down budget deficits and inflation. Working with
the IMF can bring experience to this task and lend credibility to
the efforts being made. Macroeconomic stabilisaton should not be
delayed. It will only succeed if at the same time the building
blocks of a market economy are also put into place, through
privatisation, land reform, measures to promote investment and
competition and appropriate social safeguards for the population.
33. Creditworthiness and the establishment of a dependable legal
framework are essential if private investors are to be attracted.
The creditworhtiness of the new States will in particular be
assessed by the way in which they dischage their financial
34. Private capital and entrepreneurial commitment must play a decisive
and increasing part in economic reconstruction. We urge the new
States to develop and efficient private business sector, in
particular the body of small and medium-sized private companies
which is indispensable for a market economy.
35. Rapid progress is particularly urgent and attainable in two
sectors : agriculture and energy. These sectors are of decisive
importance in improving the supply situation and increasing foreign
exchange revenue. Trade and industry in our countries are prepared
to cooperate. Valuable time has already been lost because barriers
to investment remain in place. For energy, we note the importance
of the European Energy Charter for encouraging production and
ensuring the security of supply. We urge rapid conclusion of the
36. All Summit participants have shown solidarity in a critical
situation by providing extensive food aid, credits and medical
assistance. They also have committed technical assistance. A broad
inflow of know-how and experience to the new States is needed to
help them realise their own potential. Both private and public
sectors can contribute to this. What is needed most of all is
concrete advice on the spot and practical assistance. The emphasis
should be on projects selected for their value as a model or their
strategic importance at corporate level can be particularly
37. We stress the need for the further opening of international markets
to products from the new States. Most-favoured-nation treatment
should be applied to trade with the new States and consideration
given to further preferential access. the new States should not
impede reconstruction by setting up barriers to trade between
themselves. It is in their own interest to cooperate on economic
and monetary policy.
38. We want to help the new States to preserve their highly-developed
scientific and technological skills and to make use of them in
building up their economies. We call upon industry and science in
the industrial countries to promote cooperation and exchange with
the new States. by establishing International Science and
Technology Centres we are helping to redirect the expertise of
scientists and engineers who have sensitive knowledge in the
manufacture of weapons of mass destruction towards peaceful
purposes. We will continue our efforts to enable highly-qualified
civil scientists to remain in the new States and to promote research
cooperation with western industrial countries.
39. We welcome the membership of the new States in the international
financial institutions. This will allow them to work out economic
reform programmes in collaboration with these institutions and on
this basis to make use of their substantial financial resources.
Disbursements of these funds should be linked to progress in
40. We support the phased strategy of cooperation between the Russian
Governement and the IMF. This will allow the IMF to disburse a
first credit tranche in support of the most urgent stabilisation
measures within the next few weeks while continuing to negotiate a
comprehensive reform programme with Russia. This will pave the way
for the full utilisation of the $ 24 bn support package announced in
April. Out of this, $ 6 bn earmarked for a rouble stabilisation
fund will be released when the necessary macroeconomic conditions
are in place.
41. We suggest that country consultative groups should be set up for the
new States, when appropriate, in order to foster close cooperation
among the States concerned, international isntitutions and partners.
The task of these groups would be to encourage structural reforms
and to coordinate technical assistance.
Safety of nuclear power plants in the new independent States of the
former Soviet Union and in central and eastern Europe
42. While we recognise the important role nuclear power plays in global
energy supplies, the safety of Soviet-design nuclear power plants
gives cause for great concern. Each State, through its safety
authorities and plant operators, is itself responsible for the
safety of its nuclear power plants. The new States concerned of the
former Soviet Union and the countries of central and eastern Europe
must give high priority to eliminating this danger. These efforts
should be part of a market-oriented reform of energy policies
encouraging commercail financing for the development of the energy
43. A special effort should be made to improve the safety of these
plants. We offer the States concerned our support within the
framework of a multilateral programme of action. We look to them to
cooperate fully. We call upon other interested States to contribute
44. The programme of action should comprise immediate measures in the
following areas :
- operational safety improvements;
- near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety
- enhancing regulatory regimes.
Such measures can achieve early and significant safety gains.
45. In addition, the programme of action is to create the basis for
longer-term safety improvements by the examination of
- the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of
alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy,
- the potential for upgrading plants of more recent design.
Complementary to this, we will pursue the early completion of a
convention on nuclear safety.
46. The programme of action should develop clear priorities, provide
coherence to the measures and ensure their earliest implementation.
To implement the immediate measures, the existing G 24 coordination
mandate on nuclear safety should be extended to the new States
concerned of the former Soviet Union and at the same time made more
effective. We all are prepared to strengthen ou bilateral
In addition, we support the setting up of a supplementary
multilateral machanism, as appropriate, to address immediate
operational safety and technical safety improvement measures not
covered by bilateral programmes. We invite the international
community to contribute to the funding. The fund would take account
of bilateral funding, be administered by a steering body of donors
on the basis of consensus, and be coordinated with and assisted by
the G 24 and the EBRD.
47. Decisions on upgrading nuclear power plants of more recent design
will require prior clarification of issues concerning plant safety,
energy policy, alternative energy sources and financing. To
establish a suitable basis on which such decisions can be made, we
consider the following measures necessary :
- The necessary safety studies should be presented without delay.
- Together with the competent international organisations, in
particular the IEA, the World Bank should prepare the required
energy studies including replacement sources of energy and the cost
implications. Based on these studies the World Bank and the EBRD
should report as expeditiously as possible on potential financing
48. We shall review the progress made in this aciton programme at our
meeting in 1993.
49. We take note of the representations that we received from various
Heads of State or Government and organisations, and we will study
them with interest.
50. We welcome and have accepted Prime Minister Miyazawa's invitation to
Tokyo in July 1993.
Muenchen, den 10.07.1992